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name of the term : Manganesio

Short introduction

  • Manganese is a trace element with the symbol Mn.
  • It is found mostly in bones, the liver, kidneys and pancreas.

Main natural sources

  • Rich sources: whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, teas.

Main function

  • Plays an important role in a number of body processes as a component of multiple enzymes and an activator of other enzymes.
  • Plays a role in cartilage (flexible and connective tissue) and bone development.
  • Involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, cholesterol and amino acids.
  • Antioxidant properties. Antioxidants protect cells from the damaging effects of free radicals (reactive by-products of normal cell activity), which might contribute to development of many chronic diseases.
  • Plays a role in wound healing
  • Necessary for normal brain and nerve function.

Deficiency disease

  • A true deficiency of manganese is considered rare.
  • Manganese is involved in many different processes and a deficiency can therefore adversely affect a number of systems throughout the body.
  • Low levels of manganese in the body can result in impaired glucose tolerance, altered carbohydrate and fat metabolism, skeletal abnormalities, bone demineralisation and malformation, stunted growth, decreased serum cholesterol levels, skin rash and elevated blood calcium, for example.
  • In addition, a deficiency can result in infertility, seizures, weakness, nausea or vomiting, dizziness, hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, weak hair and nails and convulsions, blindness or paralysis (loss of muscle function) in infants.
  • Studies show early life manganese exposure at high or low levels may impact neurodevelopment. Elevated manganese is also associated with poor cognitive performance in school children.

Recommended daily intake

Latest Dietary Reference Intakes  (DRIs) 
Institute of Medicine (IOM)

Age categoryPer day
Pregnancy
14 – 18 years
19 – 30 years
31 – 50 years
400 mg (RDA) 
350 mg (RDA) 
360 mg (RDA)
Lactation
14 – 18 years
19 – 30 years
31 – 50 Jahre
360 mg (RDA)
310 mg (RDA)
320 mg (RDA)
Infants 6 – 12 months75 mg (AI)
Children
 1 – 3 years
 4 – 8 years
80 mg (RDA)
130 mg (RDA)
Males
 9 – 13 years
14 – 18 years
19 – 30 years
31 – 50 years
50 – 70 years
> 70 years
240 mg (RDA)
410 mg (RDA)
400 mg (RDA)
420 mg (RDA)
420 mg (RDA)
420 mg (RDA))
Females
 9 – 13 years
14 – 18 years
19 – 30 years
31 – 50 years
50 – 70 years
> 70 years
240 mg (RDA)
360 mg (RDA)
310 mg (RDA)
320 mg (RDA)
320 mg (RDA)
320 mg (RDA)

 

AI = Adequate Intake.
RDA = Recommended Dietary Allowance.

Synonyms : Manganese

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